Colonna Gallery

She is a television personality, businesswoman, and model as well. She rose to fame after appearing on The Real: She is American belonging to the mixed ethnicity. Roman’s childhood changed due to her mother’s remarriage. Ali Akbar, who is a devout Muslim, taught her the importance of higher education, strong family values, and spiritual foundation. Roman’s mother could not last her relationship with Akhbar and divorced. At the same time, her mother was terminated from her job.

Roman Empire

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The “Roman Empire” (Imperium Romanum) is used to denote that part of the world under Roman rule from approximately 44 B.C.E. until C.E. The term also distinguished imperial from Republican Rome. The expansion of Roman territory beyond the borders of the initial city-state of Rome started long before the state became an Empire.

The Catholic Church claims responsibility for the change from seventh-day to first-day Sabbath. Sunday — fulfillment of the Sabbath. Sunday is expressly distinguished from the Sabbath which it follows chronologically every week; for Christians its ceremonial observance replaces that of the Sabbath The Sabbath, which represented the completion of the first creation, has been replaced by Sunday which recalls the new creation, has been replaced by Sunday which recalls the new creation inaugurated by the Resurrection of Christ And here are various Catholic sources claiming the change was the doing of the Roman Catholic Church: But you may read the Bible from Genesis to Revelation, and you will not find a single line authorizing the sanctification of Sunday.

The Scriptures enforce the religious observance of Saturday, a day which we never sanctify. The Convert’s Catechism of Catholic Doctrine Which is the Sabbath day? Saturday is the Sabbath day.

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Architecture of Ancient Rome Roman architecture, even more than the rest of Roman art , reflected the practical character, restless energy and organizational mindset of its creators. As the Roman Empire expanded to engulf not only the Mediterranean region but also large areas of Western Europe, Roman architects struggled to achieve two overriding aims: To this end, they mastered a number of important architectural techniques, including the arch, the dome and the vault, as well as the use of concrete.

Using these methods, Roman engineers designed and built some of the greatest public buildings in the history of architecture , including temples, basilicas, amphitheatres, triumphal arches, monuments, and public baths. In addition, to further reinforce the ideals of the Pax Romana and, above all, maintain efficiency and order, Roman architects designed numerous aqueducts, drainage systems, and bridges, as well as a vast network of roads, while planners developed a series of urban blueprints, based on army camps, to help create new towns from scratch.

The Roman Baths are a well-preserved Roman sacred site in the English city of site includes the remains of the Temple of Aquae Sulis, the Roman baths fed by the sacred hot spring, and a well-presented museum of artifacts found at the site.

Roman consul facts QR Code Flavius Anastasius consul for AD in consular garb, holding a sceptre and the mappa , a piece of cloth used to signal the start of chariot races at the Hippodrome. Ivory panel from his consular diptych. A consul was the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic , and the consulship was considered the highest level of the cursus honorum an ascending sequence of public offices to which politicians aspired.

Each year, two consuls were elected together, to serve for a one-year term. The consuls alternated in holding imperium each month, and a consul’s imperium extended over Rome, Italy, and the provinces. History Under the Republic After the legendary expulsion of the last Etruscan King, Tarquin the Proud , a harsh ruler at the end of the Roman Kingdom , most of the powers and authority of the king were ostensibly given to the newly instituted consulship.

Originally, consuls were called praetors “leader” , referring to their duties as the chief military commanders. By at least BC the title of Consul was being used. The consul was believed by the Romans to date back to the traditional establishment of the Republic in BC, but the succession of consuls was not continuous in the 5th century BC.

During the s, the office was quite often replaced with the establishment of the Consular Tribunes , who were elected whenever the military needs of the state were significant enough to warrant the election of more than the two usual consuls. Consuls had extensive powers in peacetime administrative, legislative and judicial , and in wartime often held the highest military command.

Additional religious duties included certain rites which, as a sign of their formal importance, could only be carried out by the highest state officials. Consuls also read auguries , an essential step before leading armies into the field.

The Churches and Basilicas of Rome

Witts claims that tessellated pavements, using tesserae , were used in Europe from the late fifth to early fourth centuries BC. Dunbabin concur with this assessment, asserting that the transition from pebble mosaics to more complex tessellated mosaics originated in Hellenistic- Greek Sicily during the 3rd century BC, developed at sites such as Morgantina and Syracuse. Traces of guidelines have been found beneath some mosaics, either scored into or painted onto the mortar bedding.

The design might also be pegged out in string, [2] or mounted in a wooden frame. A late Roman mosaic from La Olmeda , Spain, 4th-5th centuries AD As well as geometric patterns and designs, Roman mosaics frequently depicted divine characters or mythological scenes. The Gladiator Mosaic from Rome depicts a fighting scene, naming each gladiator involved.

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The site includes the remains of the Temple of Aquae Sulis, the Roman baths fed by the sacred hot spring, and a well-presented museum of artifacts found at the site. To the ancients, this remarkable phenomenon could only be the work of the gods. The first shrine at the springs in Bath was built by the Celts, and dedicated to the goddess Sulis. After the Roman invasion, Sulis was identified with the Roman goddess Minerva, but the name Sulis continued to be used.

This led to the town’s ancient Roman name of Aquae Sulis “waters of Sulis”. During the Roman occupation of Britain, increasingly grand temples and bathing complexes were built. The bath complex in Bath was founded in 75 AD. The healing powers of the goddess and the mineral-rich water from the spring attracted visitors from across the Roman Empire. After the Roman withdrawal the baths fell into disrepair and were eventually lost due to silting up.

When bathing again became fashionable in England, the site was reopened. The magnificent Georgian building now standing was erected at the end of the 18th century. The ancient Roman Baths were rediscovered and excavated in the late 18th century.

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Erotic literature and art[ edit ] Romantic scene from a mosaic Villa at Centocelle, Rome, 20 BC—20 AD Ancient literature pertaining to Roman sexuality falls mainly into four categories: Information about the sex lives of the Romans is scattered in historiography , oratory , philosophy, and writings on medicine , agriculture , and other technical topics. Ovid lists a number of writers known for salacious material whose works are now lost.

Ovid calls the book a collection of misdeeds crimina , and says the narrative was laced with dirty jokes.

Roman Polanski has had encounters with Samantha Geimer (), Renate Langer () and Christa Helm.. About. Roman Polanski is a 85 year old Polish Film Director. Born Rajmund Roman Liebling on 18th August, in Paris, France, he is famous for Rosemary’s Baby in Parents: Ryszard Liebling.

It is also called the period of the “military anarchy. In the third century, however, the Empire underwent military, political and economic crises and almost collapsed. There was constant barbarian invasion, civil war, and runaway hyperinflation. Part of the problem had its origins in the nature of the Augustan settlement.

Augustus, intending to downplay his position, had not established rules for the succession of emperors. Already in the first and second century disputes about the succession had lead to short civil wars, but in the third century these civil wars became a constant factor, as no single candidate succeeded in quickly overcoming his opponents or holding on to the Imperial position for very long. All but two of these emperors were either murdered or killed in battle. The organization of the Roman military, concentrated on the borders, could provide no remedy against foreign invasions once the invaders had broken through.

A decline in citizens’ participation in local administration forced the Emperors to step in, gradually increasing the central government’s responsibility. This period ended with the accession of Diocletian.

One more step

Roman numeric system Basic decimal pattern The original pattern for Roman numerals used the symbols I, V. Each marker for 1 I added a unit value up to 5 V , and was then added to V to make the numbers from 6 to 9: This feature of Roman numerals is called subtractive notation. The numbers from 1 to 10 including subtractive notation for 4 and 9 are expressed in Roman numerals as follows: Note that 40 XL and 90 XC follow the same subtractive pattern as 4 and 9.

Similarly, to counting in hundreds:

A Roman mosaic is a mosaic made during the Roman period, throughout the Roman Republic and later Empire. The mosaic decoration of the local palace complex culminates in the gallery, which contains a scene of animal hunting and fighting covering an area of 3, square feet ( m 2).

The original project is by the architect Antonio del Grande; it was then integrated by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Paolo Schor and Carlo Fontana in the last decade of the s. From the very beginning, the Gallery was conceived as a large boardroom, which was to celebrate the victory of the Christian fleet over the Turks at the Battle of Lepanto in The fresco on the vault above the Hall of the Battle Column is by Giuseppe Chiari and depicts the presentation of Marcantonio to the Virgin Mary in heaven.

The room takes its name from the column of red marble on a pedestal in the center of the room, which recalls the family coat of arms. The carvings represent ancient Roman military scenes. Of particular interest are the three large paintings by Michele di Ridolfo del Ghirlandaio representing Night, above the Bronzino, and, on the opposite wall, Dawn, with Venus and Cupid. On the short flight of stairs, going down to the Great Hall, you will find a cannon ball, which arrived in , during the period of the Roman Republic.

We suggest you walk around freely in this beautiful room, amongst the paintings, sculptures and precious furnishings, which are the heart of the family art collections, bound by fidecommesso since They are inextricably tied to the walls of the palace, may not be alienated nor divided, which is the best way to guarantee their preservation over time.

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